of Ophthalmology, University Magna Graecia, Italy 2020
Topic: Astaxanthin in the
Treatment of Ocular Diseases
Due to its unique molecular structure, astaxanthin features
some important biologic properties, mostly represented by strong antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. A growing body of evidence
suggests that astaxanthin is efficacious in the prevention and treatment of
several ocular diseases, ranging from the anterior to the posterior pole of the
eye. The efficacy of this carotenoid in the setting of retinal diseases, ocular
surface disorders, uveitis, cataract and asthenopia is reported in several
studies, which highlight its ability of modulating several metabolic pathways, subsequently
restoring the cellular homeostatic balance.
University, Birmigham, UK 2019
( Crocus sativus L.) in Ocular Diseases;
age related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic , more
supplementation appears to have promising potential as an effective and safe
adjunct therapy in certain ocular diseases. (e.g., in age related
macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic maculopathy). Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main
constituents, i.e., crocin and crocetin, are natural carotenoid compounds,
which have been reported to possess a wide spectrum of properties and induce
pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective
of Modular Science - Spain 2019
Saffron and Glaucoma
daily supplementation with saffron with high crocin may protect retinal
ganglion cell degeneration in the eye, decrease the intraocular pressure,
and significant improvement in glaucomatous pathology.
Research Council, Institute of Biophysics, Italy
Topic: Saffron reduces ATP-induced retinal
cytotoxicity by targeting P2X7 receptors
studies demonstrated that saffron protects photoreceptors from light-induced
damage preserving both retinal morphology and visual function and improves
retinal flicker sensitivity in AMD patients.
It is involved in retinal neurodegenerative disorders such as retinitis
pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
purinergic receptors are distributed throughout the nervous system where they
contribute to physiological and pathological functions. In the retina, this
receptor is found in both inner and outer cells including microglia modulating
signaling and health of retinal cells.
Tehran University of Medical Sciences– 2016
Topic: Saffron Supplementation and AMD
supplementation with saffron for 6 months significantly changes in
macular OCT and ERG parameters in patients with both dry and wet AMD,
may induce a mid-term, significant improvement in retinal function.
Journal of Ophthalmology, 2016
Topic: Zeaxanthin, and Lutein in Management of Eye Disease
Studies have reported that increased dietary intake and
higher serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of
age-related macular degeneration (AMD), especially late AMD. Randomized,
placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that xanthophyll
supplementation increases macular pigment levels, improves visual function, and
decreases the risk of progression to late AMD, especially neovascular AMD.
Current publications on the preventive and therapeutic effects of lutein and
zeaxanthin on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity
have reported encouraging results.
Institute (NHLBI) - 2013
Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS/AREDS2)
The National Eye
Institutes 5 year AREDS 2 study (Age-Related Eye Study) proved that a revised
formula consisting of the AREDS formula without beta-carotene, adding lutein
& zeaxanthin reduces the risk of progression of Age-Related Macular
Degeneration by an additional 18% compared to those in the AREDS 2 study who
took the original recommended formula from 2001.
University of Sydney
and Italy 2010
Saffron and Loss of Sight